The speech and language program at Carson services students in five basic areas of communication, including articulation, language, pragmatics, voice, and fluency. Students are seen in small groups, usually three at time, and are grouped with other students with similar needs. Most students in the speech / language program are seen twice a week. Students need a parent or teacher referral in order to be screened / tested.

The five areas of the speech / language program are:


When a child has progressed one year beyond the normal developmental age for a given sound or has reached age 8 and is producing one or more sounds incorrectly and consistently, articulation therapy is offered. This involves learning to hear the sound correctly, and then learning to produce it correctly, first in isolation, then in single words, next in sentences, and finally, in conversation.


The area of receptive language often involves vocabulary and semantics, including areas such as categories, analogies, synonyms, antonyms and verbal associations. It may also involve auditory processing training through teaching subvocalization, visualization and other compensatory techniques for auditory processing weakness.

Work on expressive language may involve basic grammar and syntax training or it may involve learning to describe, explain or tell a story in a manner that is organized and includes pertinent details. And, of course, vocabulary is a part of expressive language development as well as receptive.


This involves learning the appropriate mechanics of social interactions, such as eye contact, vocal inflection, volume, starting and ending conversations, topic maintenance, appropriate subject change, etc.


In the school setting, the most typical voice referral involves vocal nodules. The referrals come from an Ear, Nose, and Throat doctor and therapy involves determining what behavior has most likely caused it and training the child to change that behavior, through increased awareness and charting of the behavior. The child is also made to understand the physical nature of the condition and how it occurred. Another area of voice therapy is reduction of nasality and nasal emissions.


The child is first taught to observe his disfluent behaviors and understand what he is doing and is then given techniques for moving through episodes of disfluency.